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M.Sc. Botany | Biotechnology

The Master of Science program in Botany was started in 2016-17 academic year from Biotechnology Department of MM(DU). M. Sc. in Botany course provides a broad background in the biology of plants – from the molecular to the organism level. Students of botany will take courses in ecology, genetics, physiology, taxonomy, anatomy, molecular biology of plants and biochemistry. The Department is providing its students with a broad knowledge of botany and equipping them with the tools and drive to conduct original independent research in the disciplines of plant sciences.The M.Sc. programin Botany helps in meeting the manpower requirements of institutions of higher learning and research centres by providing qualified professional biologists.

Course Objective

  • To equip students with fundamental information and specialized aptitudes to examine plants in a comprehensive way
  • To impart knowledge about plant science utilizing a combination of core and elective papers with critical interdisciplinary segments
  • To make students learn about the social and ecological importance of plants to the national economy

Course Outcome

  • Gaining knowledge about the taxonomy, anatomy, morphology, evolution,systematics, genetics,plant interactions with microbes, reproduction, physiology, biochemistry and ecology of plants.
  • Training in various laboratory and field techniques used in the study of plant biology including transgenic technologies for basic and applied research in plants
  • Understading how to analyze the results, derive conclusions and report their findings in the form of research papers, project reports and dissertations
  • Understanding the importance and use of plants as industrial resources or as human livelihood support system


1st Semester

The botanical discipline concerned with the study of algae is called Phycology. Course include study on systematics, ecology, morphology, cytology, physiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, genetics of phycology. It also includes fundamental research and development of techniques and practical applications in different areas as algal and cyanobacterial biotechnology and genetic engineering, culture collections, commercially useful micro-algae and their products.

Mycology is a branch of science which involves the study of fungi. The objectives of this course are to: introduce student history and definition of mycology; to know fungal classification and morphology,know the economics importance of fungi; structure and life cycle, genetics, growth and nutrition; and provide students with opportunities to develop basic methods in mycological studies including interactions between plant and fungal pathogens. It also includes the study of relevance of fungi to microbiology, agriculture and humans.

The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with the concepts of microorganisms including prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It includes the study of the general principles for microbial growth, evolution and classification. Descriptions of different prokaryotic, eukaryotic and other life forms like bacteria, microscopic fungi (yeasts and molds), protozoans, microscopic algae, prions and viruses. Basic bacterial laboratory techniques. The natural ecology of microorganisms: balance of living organisms in the global environment. Commercial benefits of microorganisms. The human use of microorganisms and how microorganisms function in disease: microorganisms as part of our lives, such as vinegar, wine, sauerkraut, pickles, beer, cheese, and yoghurt; association of microorganisms with diseases, infections.

This course will introduce students to ecology as a scientific discipline with emphasis on plants & ecosystems. During the course, students should be familiar with ecological principles related to how plant populations & communities interact with their environments at local, regional, & global scales. The labs emphasize the ability to recognize common plants, vegetation types & ecosystems of the region, & introduce students to hypothesis testing through field experiments.The course will also introduce students to major conceptual issues and areas of current research in plant ecology.

1.Students will understand about basic unit of life. 2.Students will understand the structures and purposes of basic components of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, especially macromolecules, membranes, and organelles 3.Students will understand how these cellular components are used to generate and utilize energy in cells.

Mycology is the branch of biology that concerns with the study of fungi, including their taxonomy, life cycle and use to humans. The fungi are economically important as sources of food products, pharmaceuticals, biological control agents, biofuels conversions, and industrial processes. Fungi are also significant as they are responsible to cause plant and animal diseases, food spoilage and contamination by mycotoxins, and structural deterioration of buildings. Phycology, also known as algology, is the scientific study of algae. It is a branch of life science and often is regarded as a sub-discipline of botany.
This course includes detailed study of the fungi and algae, including unrelated organisms such as the oomycetes. General topics include traditional and molecular systematics, physiology, cellular organization, life history strategies, reproduction and dispersal, roles of fungi and algae in ecosystems, fungal symbioses, plant and animal pathogens, predaceous fungi, biological control, fungal food fermentations etc.

This practical course emphasizes on culturing of various groups of microbes under different controlled environmental conditions. Also, the students learn basic practices of staining, morphological and biochemical characterization of microbes. In plant ecology, students learn about different factors such as soil, temperature, sunlight and humidity which control the growth of the plant. They will also learn about different morphological adaptations in response to environmental factors.

2nd Semester

To understand the salient features of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. To study the structure and reproduction of various genera mentioned in the syllabus. To study about the classification and thallusorganisation in this divisions and their evolution and their importance.In pteridophytes we discuss about the classification and the range of structure and reproduction of ferns and economic importance of pteridophytes. The objectives is also to study about the fossils of pteridophytes.In gymnosperms the study about the classification of gymnosperms and their fossils. The comparative studies of various families of gymnosperms and economic importance of gymnosperms.

1.To Study Role of statistics in biological science 2.To aware about Sampling theory, Sample Size, Types of Sampling, Steps in Sampling 3.To introduce about Correlation, regression, Chi-SquareTest, F-Test and Analysis of Variance.

Course deals with a variety of physiological processes occurring in plants. For most students this course will serve as background for other more advanced plant science courses. Thus, the following specific objectives are intended To understand plant structures in the context of physiological function plants, To understand plant water relations, i.e. how plants acquire, utilize, and regulate the flow ofwater between plant and environment, To understand the mineral nutrients plants require, and how they are obtained, metabolized,and transported, To understand the physiological details of photosynthesis and respiration, and how they areorganized and regulated in plants, To understand plant growth and development, and its regulation by hormones and theenvironment.

1.To Study basic concepts of biochemistry and metabolism 2.To know about Energetics of metabolic processes, fundamentals of enzymology, biological nitrogen fixation. 3.To know about biosynthesis of proteins

This course has been designed to study vegetative and reproductive structures of bryophytes. Bryophytes are also known as cryptogams or amphibians of plant kingdom. This course covers structural, reproductive and economic value of pteridophytes. Pteridophytes are vascular plants and have leaves (known as fronds), roots and sometimes true stems, and tree ferns have full trunks. Biochemistry practical are designed to test the presence of biomolecules in plant tissues, effects of hormones, seed viability.

To study the basic concepts of genetics & Plant Breeding

3rd Semester

This course covers the classifications explained by various botanists. It includes botanical nomenclature, rules and regulation. A brief account on various taxonomic tools, phylogeny and economic importance of different families has been included in the syllabus. After completion of the course student will have comprehensive knowledge of numerical taxonomy, chemotaxonomy, biosystematics and molecular approaches to plant taxonomy. Student will be able to peruse research in plant diversity, its conservation and ecological aspects of forest system.

Plant anatomy is the study of the shape, structure, and size of plants. It deals with the internal structure of body parts and systems that make up a plant. A typical plant body consists of three major vegetative organs: the root, the stem, and the leaf, as well as a set of reproductive parts that include flowers, fruits, and seeds. Plant embryogenesis is a process that occurs after the fertilization of an ovule to produce a fully developed plant embryo. This is a pertinent stage in the plant life cycle that is followed by dormancy and germination. The zygote produced after fertilization, must undergo various cellular divisions and differentiations to become a mature embryo. An end stage embryo has five major components including the shoot apical meristem, hypocotyl, root meristem, root cap, and cotyledons. Unlike animal embryogenesis, plant embryogenesis results in an immature form of the plant, lacking most structures like leaves, stems, and reproductive structures.

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by various plant pathogens (infectious organisms). There are a wide variety of organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes that cause these biotic diseases. Study of plant pathology includes the cause of disease, its mechanisms, host pathogen interactions and control measurements.

The objective of this practical course is to understand dominance of angiosperms in terrestrial ecosystem. Students will be able to understand the systems of classification, anatomy and embryology of plants. Students will perform the following activities in the laboratory: General description of flower in technical terms, Description of different types of inflorescences and fruits in angiosperms, Description of leaf type on the basis of shape of lamina, margin, base, tips, phyllotaxy, venation, leaf modification and placentation.

This practical subject covers the experiments related to isolation and culturing of plant pathogens. Plant pathology is scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. The occurrence and prevalence of plant diseases varies from seaon to season, depending on the presence of pathogens, environmental conditions, and the crop and varieties grown. Students will mainly learn to know about the different important plant pathogens which are responsible to cause heavy losses in agricultural crops.

4th Semester

Dissertation On—Campus

Structured Industrial Training course (Off campus)


The course syllabus designed for the fundamental and conceptual application of cell and molecular biology to the sustainable and modern approaches in the plant sciences. Thus, the students are able to understand the concept, cellular organization and significance of subcellular structures in plant kingdom. The course comprises the structure and functions of the plant cell including subcellular structures like mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, nucleic acids and its application in molecular approaches and plant improvement. During this course, students will be able to investigate a number of commonly used molecular biology techniques involving DNA.

Plant tissue culture refers to the in vitro cultivation of ovules, seeds, plants and various parts of the plants such as embryos, organs, tissues, single cells, protoplasts and somatic embryogenesis. These cultivation processes are consistently carried out on a nutrient culture medium under aseptic conditions. Plant tissue culture is one of the fast growing areas of Biotechnology because of its high potential to develop improved crops and ornamental plants. Now days it is possible with advance technique used in tissue culture to generate any plant from any species in the laboratory. Plant Tissue Cultures have being contributing in various pathways of metabolism, growth, differentiation and morphogenesis of plant cells.

The course syllabus designed to study the fundamentals and conceptual applications of genetic and plant breeding techniques for sustainable agriculture and plant sciences for livelihood and economic up gradation of the country through the knowledge and skill development in the youth as a future of nation building. Genetics is the study of heredity or the passing of traits from parents to offspring however Plant breeding is a method of altering the genetic pattern of plants to increase their value and utility for human welfare. It is a purposeful manipulation of plants to create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yield and are disease resistant. The main steps of the plant breeding program are as follows: i) collection of variability, ii) Evaluation and selection of parents, iii) Hybridization, iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants, v) Testing release and commercialization of new cultivars.

Bio-analytical techniques, as the name suggests, are the analytical tools to study the biological molecules; non-biological molecules involved with life, such as drugs; and biological processes. These tools are routinely used to identify, estimate, purify, and characterize the biomolecules. Quantification of molecules in biological samples is at the heart of bioanalysis and is routinely used to diagnose various diseases and metabolic disorders. For example, estimation of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine concentrations in blood provides information about the activity of thyroid gland. Home pregnancy test kits look for the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone in the urine, presence of which above a threshold concentration is an indicator of pregnancy. The bio-analytical methods are also used to detect drugs and their metabolites in biological samples. Initially, nonspecific assays were used to quantify the drugs in biological samples. The evolution of the existing assays, advancement in instrumentation, and introduction of newer techniques have made it possible to distinguish the drug molecules and their closely related metabolites in complex biological specimens.

Applied botany is the one of the core subject of plant sciences. It covers the economically important crops, their cultivation, harvesting and value added processing. Student learns about the endogenous medicinal crops their importance and demand in pharmaceutical industries. After completion of this course student will be able to understand the commercial aspects of various plant species and their propagation. This subject helps the students in building their careers in the era of biotechnology.

Project Based Learning

  • Hands on training and learning by doing approach has been the mainstay of the course.
  • Students are provided exposure to diverse sectors of plant sciences including Micropropagation, Hydroponics, Phytoremediation, Pesticides biodegradation, Organic farming, Plant tissue culturing and Mushroom cultivation
  • Practical knowledge about Ethnobotanical therapeutics, Taxonomical aspects of plants, Herbarium collection and Plant pathology

Career opportunities

The scope of the course content deals with plant sciences and their utilization for the benefit of the mankind. The course content exposes students to various branches like morphology, anatomy, plant breeding, histology and cytology,making them aware about the nature and diversity of plants. Moreover, the utility of plants to the mankind can be understood more deeply in the areas of agriculture, horticulture, arboriculture, olericulture and floriculture as well.

Job Opportunities

  • Ecologist
  • Horticulturist
  • Molecular Biologist
  • Plant Pathologist
  • Taxonomist
  • Farming Consultant
  • Plant Biochemist
  • Paleobotanist
  • Soil Scientist
  • Forest Officer
  • Environmentalist

Eligibility Criteria

Duration: 2 yrs.

The candidates should have B.Sc. or equivalent exams with Biology as one of the subject with atleast 50% marks (45% marks in case of SC/ST candidates)



Course Course Fee 
Indian (INR) International (USD)
Tuition Fee Development Fee
M.Sc. Botany
40,000 5,000


  1. The Fee will have to be deposited at the time of Counselling.
  2. University Charges will be extra as per University norms.
  3. Fee once paid shall not be refunded under any circumstances.
  4. There will be an annual increase of 7% in tuition fee.
  5. Students Fund for all the students is Rs.2,000/- p.a.
  6. Life time Alumni Membership fee is Rs. 4,000/-.
  7. Hostel & Transport Charges will be extra.
  8. Students who wish to leave the Institute mid-stream, will have to deposit the fee for the remaining period of the course as per judgement of the Hon'ble Supreme Court in the case of Islamic Academy of Education and others Vs State of Karnataka & PA lnamdar case.


  • Maharishi Markandeshwar (DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY) Mullana, Ambala (Haryana)
  • +91-1731-274475, 76, 77, 78 | Toll Free: 1800 2740 240
  • [email protected]

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