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Datura stramonium L. is widely used across the world for its therapeutic potential to treat inflammatory disorders. The current work was designed to isolate and identify steroidal lactones from D. stramonium leaves and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.Several compounds were isolated from D. stramonium leaves and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resonance electron spray ionization mass spectrometry techniques. Further, anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds were evaluated by in vitro assays, such as release of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 macrophages. Using in vivo models, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were examined by mouse tail-flick, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat paw model, vascular permeability in rats, and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The docking studies were performed for assessing the binding efficiency of the test compounds with cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB).Three lactones were isolated and confirmed as daturalactone (D1), 12-deoxywithastramonolide (D23), and daturilin (D27). Further, the isolated compounds showed nitric oxide inhibition and pro-inflammatory cytokines released by LPS-activated J774A.1 macrophages. The in vivo results suggest that D1, D23 and D27 (20 mg/kg) were able to reduce the pain and inflammation in various animal models. The docking analysis showed that these three compounds actively bind with COX-1, COX-2, LOX-1, NF-κB, and iNOS, validating the anti-inflammatory effects of the lactones.These findings demonstrate substantial anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of D. stramonium-derived lactones and their potential as anti-inflammatory agents to treat chronic inflammatory ailments.

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