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Emergence of the multidrug resistant human pathogenic strains is posing a serious health challenge. Resistant strains carry mutations which help them to resist conventional drugs. Therefore, it is required to produce more effective agents that are able to degrade the resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The antimicrobial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) by eco-friendly green synthetic methods have pulled attention everywhere owing to their exceptional properties and small particle size of 100 nm. NPs are considered to belong to a group of antimicrobial agents which have ability to go inside microbial cells and kill them. In this comprehensive review, we are discussing the green synthetic methods used for the synthesis of NPs targeting the microbes. Additionally, several characterization techniques of antimicrobial NPs are also discussed. Subsequently, various methods used for the analysis of antimicrobial activities and their mechanisms are also examined.