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Low penetration efficiency and retention time are the main therapeutic con-cerns that make it difficult for most of the drugs to be delivered to the intraocular tissues. These challeng-ing issues are often related to those drugs, which have low or poor solubility and low permeability. Thegoal of this study was designed to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with itraconazole(ITZ) with the objective of enhancing topical ocular permeation and thereby improving clinical efficacy.Materials and Methods:ITZ-loaded NLCs were fabricated by a high-speed homogenization technique usingsurfactant (Poloxamer 407), and lipids (stearic acid and oleic acid). Optimization of formulations was per-formed by 3 level factorial design and the selected formulation (F6) was evaluated by differential scan-ning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Antifungal activity was assessed by measuringthe zone of inhibition and irritation potential using the HET-CAM test.Results:The independent variables (lipid ratio-X1and percentage of emulsifier-X2) have a positive impacton percentage entrapment efficiency (Y2) and percentage release (Y3) but have a negative impact on par-ticle size (Y1). Based on the better entrapment efficiency (94.65%), optimum particle size (150.67 nm), andpercentage cumulative drug release (68.67%), batch F6 was selected for further evaluation. Electron micro-scopic images revealed that the prepared particles are spherical and have nano size. Antifungal studiesdemonstrated enhancement in the zone of inhibition by formulation F6 as compared to a commercialeye drop. The non-irritancy of optimized formulation (F6) was confirmed with a zero score.Interpretation & Conclusion:In summary, the optimized NLCs seem to be a potent carrier for the effectivedelivery of itraconazole in ocular therapy

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