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There is mounting evidence of circadian rhythm disruption in Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, the cause-and-effect relationship between them is not understood. Chronic constant light exposure effectively disrupts circadian rhythm in rats. On the basis of previous publications, we hypothesized that chronic constant light exposure might contribute significantly to development of AD-like-phenotype in rats and that fluoxetine (Flx) treatment might protect the brain against it. Adult male rats were exposed to normal light-dark cycles, constant light (LL), constant dark, and LL+Flx (5 mg/kg/day, ZT5) for four months. The expression of molecular markers of circadian rhythm: Per2 transcripts; and protein expression of peroxiredoxin-1 (PRX1) and hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (PRX-SO2/3) were significantly dysregulated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of LL rats, which was prevented with concomitant fluoxetine administration. The levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid were dysregulated, and oxidative damage was observed in the SCN and hippocampi of LL rats. Fluoxetine treatment conferred protection against oxidative damage in LL rats. Constant light exposure also impaired rats’ performance on Y-maze, Morris maze, and novel object recognition test, which was prevented with fluoxetine administration. A significant elevation in soluble Aβ1–42 levels, which strongly correlated with upregulation of Bace1 and Mgat3 transcripts was observed in the hippocampus of LL rats. Further, the expression of antiaging gene Sirt1 was downregulated, and neuronal damage indicator Prokr2 was upregulated in hippocampus. Fluoxetine rescued Aβ1–42 upregulation and AD-related genes’ dysregulation. Our findings show that circadian disruption by exposure to chronic constant light may contribute to progression of AD, which can be prevented with fluoxetine treatment.