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Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen which is undoubtedly known for a high rate of morbidity and mortality in hospital-acquired infections. A. baumannii causes life-threatening infections, including; ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), meningitis, bacteremia, and wound and urinary tract infections (UTI). In 2017, the World Health Organization listed A. baumannii as a priority-1 pathogen. The prevalence of A. baumannii infections and outbreaks emphasizes the direct need for the use of effective therapeutic agents for treating such infections. Available antimicrobials, such as; carbapenems, tigecycline, and colistins have insufficient effectiveness due to the appearance of multidrug-resistant strains, accentuating the need for alternative and novel therapeutic remedies. To understand and overcome this menace, the knowledge of recent discoveries on the virulence factors of A. baumannii is needed. Herein, we summarized the role of various virulence factors, including; outer membrane proteins, efflux pumps, biofilm, penicillin-binding proteins, and siderophores/iron acquisition systems. We reviewed the recent scientific literature on different A. baumannii virulence factors and the effective antimicrobial agents for the treatment and management of bacterial infections.

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